The perilous Arctic Convoy runs between 1941 and 1945 were called “the suicide missions” by many of those who sailed on them.
Merchant boats with supplies and ammunition were escorted by Royal Navy warships from Britain to the Soviet Union during World War II, usually in sub-zero temperatures.
The supplies they delivered were vital to the war effort as German forces had Russia blockaded on land.
A total of 78 convoys sailed to and from Russia, escorted by various allied navies, including the Russian fleet.
In addition to the British merchant navy, Russian, US, Canadian, Norwegian and Dutch merchant fleets were also involved.
In December 2014, a group of eight Russian Arctic Convoy veterans visited Inverness as part of a reunion tour with their British shipmates.
It was a poignant return to the Highlands for the mariners, many of whom had sailed from Loch Ewe in Wester Ross to carry supplies to allies in Russia.
Just a few weeks earlier, eight British veterans were presented with Ushakov Medals from the Russian Federation as a symbol of Russia’s infinite gratitude to Britain’s Arctic heroes.
A group of British veterans visited St Petersburg in 2014 for the 73rd anniversary of the first Arctic Convoy mission.