Scottish Labour leader Richard Leonard will face a no confidence vote at a meeting of the party’s governing body on Saturday.
The Scottish Executive Committee (SEC) is due to discuss a motion of no confidence in his leadership.
Mr Leonard has hit back at his critics, saying they have “nothing to say or offer”.
It comes after several Scottish Labour MSPs, including Daniel Johnson and James Kelly, announced they no longer supported him.
The rebel MSPs have indicated they would support a leadership challenge but none have said they would run against him.
Mr Leonard says he will not stand down and has accused his opponents of “underestimating” him.
Responding to the motion of no confidence, he said: “The last thing Labour supporters and those we need to win back want to see is a party turning in on itself.
“A lot of these people are not mandated by their organisations to vote in this way.
“That exposes how this is motivated by faction and that this is an entirely factional move.
“They have nothing to say or offer, no ideas, no plan to protect jobs and living standards against the backdrop of the Covid crisis.
“That is what I want us to concentrate on: the real struggle the people of Scotland are in.”
The SEC oversees the direction of the party and is made up of elected representatives and members of affiliated groups such as trade unions.