As Britain adapts to new restrictions designed to combat a second wave of the coronavirus, here is a look at how some other countries have handled resurgences of Covid-19.
FRANCE: Aiming to avoid a new national lockdown, the French government moved in July to make face masks compulsory in enclosed public spaces. In Paris, anyone aged 11 and older must wear a mask in public. Other cities have followed that lead, including Lille, Nice and Toulouse. Masks must also be worn in most workplaces.
SPAIN: The Spanish government has also cracked down on the use of masks, with face coverings mandatory for anyone older than six on all forms of public transport and in most indoor areas. Most parts of Spain have enforced the wearing of masks outside as well. Children are also being asked to wear masks at school.
DENMARK: After relatively few cases early on, Covid-19 began to rise in Denmark in August, prompting guidance to make face masks on public transport mandatory. Bars, restaurants and nightclubs must close by 10pm. The same curfew is applied to private parties, including wedding receptions.
BELGIUM: The country has had to put on hold plans for widespread reopenings. Face masks are compulsory in all public areas. Nightclubs remain closed, major events including festivals are still not allowed, and while fans are permitted back into football games, it is at a limited capacity only.
ITALY: With the virus resurgence, authorities ordered all nightclubs and dance halls to close. A face mask rule has been brought in, but has drawn widespread criticism, if not ridicule. In all public spaces in Italy where social distancing is not possible, people must wear face coverings – but only between the hours of 6pm and 6am. Meanwhile, schools have reopened, despite officials in many regions calling the step premature.
ISRAEL: After largely declaring the battle won, and with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu urging people to “have fun”, Israel has suffered an intense resurgence of Covid-19 which has triggered strict measures. The nation last week began a second country-wide lockdown, with schools, restaurants, malls, hotels and other businesses all ordered to shut. The lockdown is expected to last three weeks. Protests have been held against the measure, but new rules addressing these say they must be limited to groups of up to 20 people, with participants not allowed to travel more than one kilometre from their home to take part.
GERMANY: The country has extended its ban on large gatherings until the end of the year. Testing at airports is mandatory for all people arriving from high-risk countries. Fines starting from 50 euros (£46) have been brought in for anyone failing to wear a mask on public transport or in shops. The Bundesliga was able to start its new football season last weekend, but with no fans present.
AUSTRALIA: The state of Victoria reacted to a resurgence in cases by imposing a second state-wide lockdown in July. With that lockdown still in place, protests have broken out regularly in the past few weeks.