Chief Secretary to the Treasury Danny Alexander said the £2.4billion of borrowing in 2018-19 was the equivalent to an additional £440 per person.
“This is another example of the Scottish Government saying anything to try and get their numbers to add up,” he added.
“Every single independent expert has said that Scotland will have a higher starting deficit – it’s only the Scottish Government that won’t admit it.
“Now they are telling us that they plan to borrow money while paying tax revenues into an oil fund – it’s like maxing out all the credit cards just to put a few quid under the mattress.”
A Scottish Government spokesman said it opposed Westminster’s austerity measures.
“We believe the best way to reduce the deficit in the long term is to invest in public spending,” he added.
“To grow the economy and reduce the deficit in a sustainable way and ensure there is less need to borrow in the future by boosting revenues in the long term.
“Even with a 3% increase in spending growth, Scotland’s deficit is forecast to fall to 2.2% of GDP in 2018-19, significantly below the current level of 8.3%.
“It would ensure that the country’s debt was falling as a share of GDP.”