Aberdeen has been pipped to the post by Edinburgh at the top of a league table of the UK’s most “liveable” cities for expatriates.
The Granite City is ranked among the very top cities in Britain and 21st globally.
The research looked at living conditions in more than 490 locations, to assess how easy or hard it would be for an expat to settle into a new life in these places.
Factors evaluated in the study included climate, health services, housing and utilities; isolation, infrastructure and access to a social network and leisure facilities; and personal safety, political tensions and air quality.
Edinburgh was ranked joint 17th, alongside Hamburg, for 2021.
The Scottish capital was 21st in the previous study a year earlier.
Global mobility experts ECA International, which compiled the table, said Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Cardiff (27th), each benefited from the infrastructural and cultural perks of larger cities, including a big expat community.
London was 42nd, rising from 55th position previously.
Glasgow was ranked at 51 for 2021, moving up 13 places from its “pandemic dip”, the study said.
Dublin was ranked 10th for 2021, having been 15th the year before.
Copenhagen and Bern top the list
Neil Ashman, senior location ratings analyst, ECA International, said: “Successful vaccine rollouts have enabled much of Europe to reopen and regain a sense of normality to some degree.”
UK rankings for 2020 were impacted by strict lockdowns affecting cities’ “recreational” scores – causing London to drop to its lowest liveability ranking to date.
Scandinavian locations made up six of the top 20 most liveable cities for European expats that year.
According to ECA International, the rankings help companies establish appropriate allowances to compensate employees for the adjustment required when going on international assignment.
The organisation added: “The impact of some of the factors assessed will vary according to the home location of the assignee.”